What’s happening in Jerusalem?
- On Monday, Israeli armed forces stormed AlAqsa Mosque in the Haramesh Sharif in Jerusalem, ahead of a march by Zionist nationalists commemorating Israel’s capture of the eastern half of the city in 1967.
- More than 300 Palestinians were injured in the raid. In retaliation, Hamas, the Islamist militant group that runs Gaza, ﬁred dozens of rockets that killed two Israelis. Israel launched an airstrike on Gaza in response, killing 26 Palestinians, including militants and nine children.
Sheikh Jarrah dispute
- Earlier this year, the Central Court in East Jerusalem upheld a decision to evict four Palestinian families from their homes in Sheikh Jarrah in favour of Jewish settlers. The Israeli Supreme Court was scheduled to hear the case on May 10. But the hearing was postponed on advice from the government amid the ongoing violence in Jerusalem. The issue remains unresolved. Hundreds of thousands of Palestinians were forced out of their homes when the State of Israel was created in historic Palestine in 1948 (the Palestinians call the events ‘Nakba’, or catastrophe).
- 28 of those Palestinian families moved to Sheikh Jarrah in East Jerusalem to settle there. In 1956, when East Jerusalem was ruled by Jordan, the Jordanian Ministry of Construction and Development and the UN Relief and Works Agency facilitated the construction of houses for these families in Sheikh Jarrah.
- But Israel would capture East Jerusalem from Jordan in 1967. By the early 1970s, Jewish agencies started demanding the families leave the land.
- Jewish committees claimed that the houses sat on land they purchased in 1885 (when Jews, facing persecution in Europe, were migrating to historic Palestine that was part of the Ottoman Empire).
- Jerusalem has been at the centre of the Israeli Palestinian conﬂict.
- According to the original 1947 UN Partition Plan, Jerusalem was proposed to be an international city.
- But in the ﬁrst Arab Israel war of 1948, the Israelis captured the western half of the city, and Jordan took the eastern part, including the Old City that houses Haram eshSharif.
- Israel captured East Jerusalem from Jordan in the 1967 SixDay War and annexed it later.
- Since its annexation, Israel has expanded settlements in East Jerusalem, which is now home for some 220,000 Jews.
- Jews born in East Jerusalem are Israeli citizens, while Palestinians in the city are given conditional residency permits. Palestinians in East Jerusalem, unlike other parts of the occupied West Bank, can, however, apply for Israeli citizenship. Very few Palestinians have done so.
- Israel sees the whole city as its “uniﬁed, eternal capital”, a claim endorsed by Donald Trump when he was U.S. President but not recognised by most other countries. Palestinian leaders across the political spectrum have maintained that they would not accept any com promise formula for a future Palestinian state unless East Jerusalem is its capital.
· AlAqsa Mosque, Islam’s third holiest site, and the Dome of the Rock are situated within Haram esh-Sharif (Noble Sanctuary).·
One side of the compound, called Temple Mount by the Jews, is the Wailing Wall (Western Wall), which is believed to be the remains of the Second Jewish Temple, the holiest site in Judaism.
Source: The Hindu
Prime Minister Narendra Modi will not attend the G7 summit in the United Kingdom next month. U.K. Prime Minister Boris Johnson has invited PM Modi to attend the G7 Summit as a Special Invitee. However, given the prevailing COVID situation, the Prime Minister will not attend the summit in person.
- It is an intergovernmental organisation that was formed in 1975
by the top economies of the time as an informal forum to discuss pressing world issues.
- The G-7 or ‘Group of Seven’ are Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Canada joined the group in 1976, and the European Union began attending in 1977.
- The G-7 does not have a formal constitution or a fixed headquarters. The decisions taken by leaders during annual summits are non-binding.
The G-7 was known as the ‘G-8’ for several years after the original seven were joined by Russia in 1997. The Group returned to being called G-7 after Russia was expelled as a member in 2014 following the latter’s annexation of the Crimea region of Ukraine.
- G-7 and G-20
- The G-20 is a larger group of countries, which also includes G7 members. Apart from the G-7 countries, the G-20 comprises Argentina, Australia, Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, South Korea, and Turkey.
- The G-20 was formed in 1999, in response to a felt need to bring more countries on board to address global economic concerns.
- As opposed to the G-7, which discusses a broad range of issues, deliberations at the G-20 are confined to those concerning the global economy and financial markets. Initially formed as an effort by the US and its allies to discuss economic issues, the G-7 forum has deliberated about several challenges over the decades, such as the oil crashes of the 1970s, the economic changeover of ex-Soviet bloc nations, and many pressing issues such as financial crises, terrorism, arms control, and drug trafficking.
- The rise of India, China, and Brazil over the past few decades has reduced the G-7’s relevance, whose share in global GDP has now fallen to around 40%.
G-7 and G-20
· The G-20 is a larger group of countries, which also includes G7 members. Apart from the G-7 countries, the G-20 comprises Argentina, Australia, Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, South Korea, and Turkey.
· The G-20 was formed in 1999, in response to a felt need to bring more countries on board to address global economic concerns.
· As opposed to the G-7, which discusses a broad range of issues, deliberations at the G-20 are confined to those concerning the global economy and financial markets.
Source: The Hindu
Strait of Hormuz
- Iran’s powerful Revolutionary Guard rejected the U.S. Navy’s claim that fastapproaching Iranian speedboats in the Strait of Hormuz sparked a tense encounter in the already sensitive region.
- The Revolutionary Guard said Americans were guilty of using “unprofessional behaviour” and should more strictly “abide by international regulations.”
- A day earlier, the U.S. said that 13 armed speedboats came too close to U.S. Navy vessels in the Strait of Hormuz.
Source: The Hindu
National Human Rights Commission (NHRC)
- A week after issuing an advisory, the National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) has reiterated that the government must protect the rights of people during the second wave of the pandemic.
- It said it also asked for 24/7 tollfree helplines and ﬁding of treatment prices. It had issued an advisory to the Health Ministry and all States and Union Territories on May 4.
The National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) of India was established on 12 October, 1993. The statute under which it is established is the Protection of Human Rights Act (PHRA), 1993 as amended by the Protection of Human Rights (Amendment) Act, 2006.
- It consists of a Chairperson and three members. Of the three members atleast one will be a woman.
- The chairperson is a retired chief justice of India or a judge of the Supreme Court.
- They hold office for a term of three years or until they attain the age of 70 years, whichever is earlier.
- They are appointed by the President on the recommendations of a six-member committee consisting of:
- Prime Minister (head)
- Speaker of the Lok Sabha
- Deputy Chairman of the Rajya Sabha
- Leaders of the Opposition in both the Houses of Parliament
- Union Home Minister.
They are appointed by the President on the recommendations of a six-member committee consisting of:
· Prime Minister (head)
· Speaker of the Lok Sabha
· Deputy Chairman of the Rajya Sabha
· Leaders of the Opposition in both the Houses of Parliament
· Union Home Minister.
What are Human Rights?
- As per the UN definition, Human rights are inherent to all human beings, regardless of race, gender, nationality, ethnicity, language, religion, or any other status. These rights are entitled to all humans without any discrimination.
- Section 2(1)(d) of the PHRA defines Human Rights as the rights relating to life, liberty, equality and dignity of the individual guaranteed by the Constitution or embodied in the International Covenants and enforceable by courts in India.
Source: The Hindu
Child trafficking during Covid-19
- According to UNICEF, India has over 30 million orphan and abandoned children. Unfortunate parental deaths during Covid-19 has added unknown numbers of orphans to the list. Many children escaped monitoring by the oﬃcial machinery due to the breakdown of systems.
- Today, some people are oﬀering infants for instant adoption by selling sob stories of how the children have lost their parents to the dreaded virus. These unscrupulous people target gullible persons who fall into the trap, little realising that such adoptions are illegal. The lack of inputs for proper procedures for legal adoption and hasty sentimental considerations are exploited for exorbitant sums of money. This business of criminal trading of children must be checked.
Protection granted by the law
- The Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) law was enacted in 2015.
- The Juvenile Justice Rules of 2016 and the Adoption Regulations of 2017 followed to create the Central Adoption Resource Authority (CARA) as a statutory body for the regulation, monitoring and control of all intracountry and intercountry adoptions.
- Furthermore, CARA became pivotal in granting a ‘no objection’ certiﬁcate for all intercountry adoptions, pursuant to India becoming a signatory to the Hague Convention on Protection of Children and Cooperation in Respect of Intercountry Adoptions.
- India is also a signatory to the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child.
- Thus, protections aﬀorded to children became a legal mandate of all authorities and courts. Laws were enacted. Machineries and mechanisms created were put in place.
About Juvenile justice Act
- The Juvenile Justice Act is a secular law. All persons are free to adopt children under this law. However, persons professing the Hindu religion are free to adopt under the Hindu Adoptions and Maintenance Act of 1956.
- Rehabilitation of all orphaned, abandoned and surrendered children is regulated by the strict mandatory procedures of the Adoption Regulations.
- Children of relatives can also be adopted under the Juvenile Justice Act.
- Only such children declared legally free for adoption under the Juvenile Justice Act by prescribed procedures can be adopted.
- Any person or organisation oﬀering or receiving such children for adoption in violation of the Juvenile Justice Act and the Adoption Regulations invites punishment up to three years and a ﬁne of ₹1 lakh or both.
Adoption Procedure within India
- The eligibility of prospective adoptive parents living in India, duly registered on the Child Adoption Resource Information and Guidance System (CARINGS), irrespective of marital status and religion, is adjudged by specialised adoption agencies preparing home study reports.
- Upon approval, as per seniority in the adoption list, prospective children are oﬀered and pre-adoption foster care follows.
- The specialised adoption agency then secures court orders approving the adoption.
Procedure for NRIs
- All nonresident persons approach authorised adoption agencies in their foreign country of residence for registration under CARINGS.
- Their eligibility is adjudged by authorised foreign adoption agencies through home study reports.
- As per seniority, they are oﬀered proﬁles of children and child study reports are ﬁnalised.
- CARA then issues a preadoption ‘no objection’ certiﬁcate for foster care, followed by a court adoption order.
- A ﬁnal ‘no objection’ certiﬁcate from CARA or a conformity certificate under the adoption convention is mandatory for a passport and visa to leave India.
- CARA must conduct an outreach programme on social media, newspapers and TV, warning everyone not to entertain any illegal adoption oﬀers under any circumstances whatsoever.
- The legal process of adoption must be adequately publicised.
- The National and State Commis sions for Protection of Child Rights must step up their roles as vigilantes, as they are empowered by law to take eﬀective action against those engaging in illegal activities.
- Social activists, NGOs and enlightened individuals must report all the incidents that come to their notice.
- Respective State Legal Services Authorities have the infrastructure and machinery to stamp out such unlawful practices brought to their attention.
- Media must publicise and shame all those involved in this disreputable occupation. Innocent children deprived of the love and care of their natural parents due to tragedies cannot fall prey to traders of human smuggling.
- Police authorities need to be extra vigilant in apprehending criminals. A joint privatepublic venture must come into motion. Every citizen of the nation has a role to play in eradicating this unhealthy practice