current Affair – April 29, 2021

0
CURRENT AFFAIRS

National Capital Territory of Delhi (Amendment) Act, 2021

  • National Capital Territory of Delhi (Amendment) Act, 2021 has come into effect from April 27.
  • The legislation supplements constitutional provisions for the Legislative Assembly and a Council of Ministers for the NCT of Delhi.

Features of act

  • As per the amended act, the expression ‘Delhi Government’ referred to in any law to be made by the UT’s Legislative Assembly shall mean the Lieutenant Governor.
  • The Bill gives discretionary powers to the LG even in matters where the Legislative Assembly of Delhi is empowered to make laws.
  • The amendment says that “Legislative Assembly shall not make any rule to enable itself to consider the matters of day-to-day administration of the Capital or conduct inquiries in relation to the administrative decisions”.

Rationale for the act

  • The act will clarify the expression “Government” and address ambiguities in the legislative provisions.
  • It will to promote harmonious rela­tions between the legislature and the executive.
  • It defines the res­ponsibilities of the elected government and the L­G along with the “constitution­ al scheme of governance of the NCT” interpreted by the Supreme Court in recent judgments regarding the di­ vision of powers between the
  • It will also seek to ensure that the L­G is “ne­cessarily granted an oppor­tunity” to exercise powers entrusted to him under Article 239AA (4) of the Constitution.
Source: The Hindu

Supply Chain Resilience Initiative

  • The Supply Chain Resilience Initiative (SCRI) formally launched by the Trade Ministers of India, Japan and Australia. It is seen as being aimed at reducing their reliance on China.
  • In 2019, the cumulative GDP of the three countries was $9.3 trillion, while cumulative merchandise goods and services trade were $2.7 trillion and $900 billion, respectively.

Significance of SCRI

  • The Covid Pandemic revealed supply chain vulnera­bilities globally and in the region.
  • Importance of risk management and continuity plans in order to avoid supply chain disruptions.

Objectives

  • It aims to create a virtuous cycle of enhancing supply chain resilience with a view to eventually attaining strong, sustainable, balanced and inclusive growth in the region.
  • Supporting the enhanced utilisation of digital technology and trade and investment diversification.
  • SCRI will initially focus on sharing best practices on supply chain resilience and holding investment promotion events and buyer-seller matching events to provide opportunities for stakeholders to explore the possibility of diversification of their supply chains.
Source: The Hindu

Earthquake in Assam

  • The earthquake of magnitude 6.4 hit Assam. It was felt across northeast India, Bihar, West Bengal, Bhutan and Bangladesh, also left several buildings and roads in the northern and western parts of the State damaged.
  • The National Centre of Seismology (NCS) said the epicentre of the earthquake was at a depth of 10 km, was Dhekiajuli in Sonitpur district.

Fault line

  • The preliminary analysis showed it was located near the Kopili Fault closer to the Himalayan Frontal Thrust.
  • The area is seismically very active falling in the highest Seismic Hazard Zone V associated with collisional tectonics where Indian Plate subducts beneath the Eurasian Plate,
  • HFT is a geological fault along the boundary of the Indian and Eurasian tectonic plates.
  • The Kopili Fault is a 300-km northwest-southeast trending fault from the Bhutan Himalaya to the Burmese arc.

What is a fault?

  • A fault is a fracture along which the blocks of crust on either side have moved relative to one another parallel to the fracture.
  • When an earthquake occurs on one of these faults, the rock on one side of the fault slips with respect to the other. The fault surface can be vertical, horizontal, or at some angle to the surface of the earth.

History of quakes

  • The region has seen several “moderate to large earthquakes”. The worst of these was the great Assam-Tibet Earthquake that occurred on Independence Day in 1950. It had a moment magnitude of 8.6 and hence was in the same league as the Great Chile Earthquake, with its magnitude of 9.5.
  • An earthquake of magnitude 8.1, had shaken Assam earlier on June 12, 1897. It reduced to rubble all masonry buildings within a region of northeastern India and was felt over an area exceeding that of the great 1755 Lisbon earthquake.
Source: Indian Express

Anti-microbial resistance

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is the the phenomenon by which bacteria and fungi evolve and become resistant to presently available medical treatment. It is one of the greatest challenges of the 21st century.

  • AMR is responsible for up to 7,00,000 deaths a year.

Challenges

  • It represents existential threat to modern medicine. Even the most common surgical procedures, as well as cancer chemotherapy, will become fraught with risk from untreatable infections.
  •  Neonatal and maternal mortality will increase.
  • A recent report from the non­profit PEW Trusts found that ov­er 95% of antibiotics in development today are from small companies, 75% of which have no products currently in the market. Major pharmaceutical companies have largely abandoned innovation in this space.   low­ and middle­ income countries (LMICs) of Asia and Africa face even more serious as they have significantly driven down mortality using cheap and easily available antimicrobials.
  • No new classes of antibiotics have made it to the market in the last three decades. This is due to inadequate incentives for their development.
A recent report from the non­profit PEW Trusts found that ov­er 95% of antibiotics in development today are from small companies, 75% of which have no products currently in the market. Major pharmaceutical companies have largely abandoned innovation in this space

Reasons for AMR

  1. Misuse of antimicrobials in medicine
  2. Inappropriate use in agriculture
  3. Contamination around pharmaceutical manufacturing sites

Action needed

  • New antimicrobials, infection­control measures
  • Incentives and sanctions to encourage appropriate clinical use
  • Ensure that all those who need an antimicrobial have access to it
  • Surveillance measures to identify these organisms need to expand beyond hospitals and encompass livestock, wastewater and farm run­off.
  • Sustained investments and global coordination to detect and combat new resistant strains on an ongoing basis.

Way forward

  • A multi­sectoral $1 billion AMR Action Fund was launched in 2020 to support the development of new antibiotics.
  • U.K. is trialling a subscription­based model for paying for new antimicrobials towards ensuring their commercial viability.
  • Peru’s efforts on patient education to reduce unnecessary antibiotic pre­scriptions.
  • Australian regulatory re­forms to influence prescriber beha­viour, and
  •  EU supported VALUE­Dx pro­gramme  towards increase the use of point­-of-­care diagnostics.
  • Den­mark’s reforms to prevent the use of antibiotics in livestock led to a significant reduction in the prevalence of resistant microbes in animals and improved the efficiency of farming.
  • Need to look into laws to curb the amount of active antibiotics released in pharmaceutical waste.
  • One health approach: Solutions in clinical medicine must be integrated with improved surveil­ lance of AMR in agriculture, animal health and the environment. There is need for  engagement from a wide range of stakeholders, representing agriculture, trade and the environment.
  • International alignment and coordination are paramount in both policymaking and its implementation.
Source: The Hindu

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Related Posts